This episode's vocabulary
- To diverge (verb.) - to follow a different direction, or to be or become different.
- Spectrum (noun) - a range of different positions, opinions, etc. between two extreme points.
- Sedate (adj.) - avoiding excitement or great activity and usually calm and relaxed.
- To decompress (verb) - to relax.
- Detrimental (adj.) - causing harm or damage.
- Connectedness (noun) - the state of being connected and having a close relationship with other things or people.
- Hindsight (noun) - the ability to understand an event or situation only after it has happened.
- Salient (adj.) - the salient facts about something or qualities of something are the most important things about them.
- Deployable (adj.) - (of soldiers or equipment) able to be moved to a place where they can be used when they are needed.
Questions and Answers
M: What outdoor activities do people do in their leisure time?
R: Well, I think they just walk, really. I mean, many local areas are pretty much literally built for this and why not use it if your taxes are paying for it? I'm not an expert. But if I have to give an answer, then that's the one I'm going to stick with.
M: How have the activities changed in your country compared to the past?
R: Well, I suppose they probably have more of a purpose now. For example, it's not just about fun. So going to the gym is energizing and interesting. But it's also about improving your performance. And I don't think people did that so much in the past.
M: Do women have more leisure time than men?
R: Well, how on earth would I know? I'm not an expert. But if I were to guess I imagined it's about equal, though it's likely spent in slightly different ways since men and women, well, have diverging interests often.
M: And could you give an example like what do men do in their leisure time? And what do women do, usually?
R: If we talk about outdoors, then I suppose men are more likely to go, well, they're probably more likely to go swimming in lakes, because there's a greater risk involved in that. Whereas women tend to avoid risky sports, so they would probably be more likely to go for a walk. However, that's at the extreme ends of the spectrum. There's no reason why women couldn't enjoy doing something risky and why a man would want to do something more sedate.
M: Is leisure time important to everyone?
R: Absolutely. It's crucial to have time to decompress and relax. Otherwise, you run the risk of burning out mentally and or physically.
M: What are the differences between children's outdoor activities in the past and now?
R: Like I was saying earlier, they usually have a concrete purpose behind them now. So we understand that coddling them and keeping them away from the outdoors in risky situations is detrimental to their development. You can see that in the damage done to the, well, upcoming generation, I suppose is the best way to describe it. So there's a greater focus on developing the risk-taking skills and nature connectedness. That would also have been the case in the past, but people just weren't aware of it, though, in hindsight, they probably should have been.
M: And what are the differences between people's outdoor activities in the past and now? Like older people.
R: I suppose the most salient ones are like the range of activities available and, well, their extension to more groups in society. For example, hill walking was something considered to be quite upper middle class, but increasingly, more and more working-class people are doing it, which is excellent, since they face greater difficulties with their health in the long term.
M: And what about in the future? What kind of outdoor activities will people have in the future?
R: That's a really good question. And to be honest, I have no idea. However, if I were to guess, I would say they'd probably integrate technology into the experience more.
M: Like in what ways?
R: Well in similar ways to how they do already. So by tracking performance, they could also do it to increase the range of activities available. So with lighter materials comes the opportunity to use more readily deployable frames like more people could go parasailing or paragliding, if they are able to just take something with them, as opposed to dragging something with them.
M: Thank you Rory for your answers!
M: Right, so outdoor activities. So what do we mean by such activities? Everything you do outdoors. All right? So indoor activities usually we talk about board games, playing cards, I don't know, football.
R: Oh, hold on a second. Outdoor activities?
M: No, no, that's like indoor but outdoor activities happen outdoors, right? So all these like swimming, dangerous swimming in lakes together with Scottish Loch Ness Monster. Yeah. So playing football, beach volleyball, I don't know, frisbee, throwing frisbee, playing with the ball, any nonsense that you do outside. And then which activities are popular? Well, our favorite phrase, I'm not an expert. But if I were to guess I imagine it's about blah. Yeah? An interesting idea Rory mentioned comparing the activities in the past and today, he said that outdoor activities now have more of a purpose than before. So before people just throw a frisbee without any particular purpose, but now an activity has a purpose.
R: Well, probably the purpose was to have fun, but like now it's about like, it's a sport, like, let's go out and do sports and improve ourselves.
M: Yeah, so there's this purpose of like self-development, right? So like going to the gym is energizing and interesting for some people. Free time is leisure time. Or also you can call it past time. Right? And about men and women IELTS people love such sexist questions. Especially... Not especially, also in the essay. Like, oh, do women do this, and men do this? Do you agree? So this kind of thing.
R: It's so stupid. I'm sorry. I just really don't like such idea.
M: I know me too. I just don't like such questions. But unfortunately, they do exist and still up to now.
R: Well, that's a dumb idea. Just tell them like how should I know?
M: Yeah. Do women have more leisure time? Oh, like which women? Where?
R: How do you know? What do you think? You should say to the examiner, like what do you think? What a stupid question.
M: Oh, yes. So here, Rory reacted, how on earth would I know? It means like, okay, how should I know? Like, I don't have the statistics.
R: Well, also I'm not a man. Oh, sorry, I'm not a woman. I'm not a women. I'm not a woman.
M: As I'm not a woman, I can't really say what women do.
R: Yes. But probably.
M: Yeah, but probably. Yeah. Then you should say something like, I imagine it's about equal. So here you can say okay, women and men have equal amounts of leisure time. And then you can say that it's a women and men are likely to spend their leisure time in different ways. Because they have diverging interests. Rory, we need your help. Rory is dictionary.
R: Diverging interests just means they have interests that go in one of two directions. So it'll be one that men choose more often, and they'll be one that women choose more often.
M: Yeah. So whatever the question is about men and women, you can say they are likely to do things in different ways because they often have diverging interests. And then the examiner goes okay, for example, like, give me an example. Like what do you mean? What do you mean? And then Rory said something outstanding about men are likely to go and swim in lakes.
R: Yes, men are more likely to do the stupid thing, whereas women are more likely to do the sensible thing. This is how we have progressed as a society for the last 10,000 years.
M: Don't Scottish girls get drunk and also do crazy...
R: Hold on. Drinking has nothing to do with this. It's just that when it comes to risky behavior, men are more likely to do it than women. Like that's just a fact.
M: Right, yeah, yeah, true. True. Yeah.
R: However, I'm sure there are also women out there who show a complete disregard for their personal safety as well. Good for you ladies. That's what we'd like to see, people putting themselves at risk.
M: Oh, boy. Yeah. Drinking is a popular Scottish outdoor activity.
R: No, it's not.
M: drinking by the lakes. No, it's not?
M: Ah, so you drink indoors? Sorry. It's a popular Scottish indoor activity.
R: That's a great like response. Oh, so you do your drinking indoors then? Like no, you would... Honestly based on our podcast alone, you would get this impression of Scotland that everyone is pretty much drunk all the time. And we get nothing done.
M: I'm drunk, but I'm free.
R: Well, I'm drunk and I'm free. No, I don't think it works like this.
M: Drunk and free. All right, anyway. Yeah, risk. So we can talk about risks when we talk about children and their outdoor activities in the past and now and Rory said that now there's a greater focus on developing children's risk taking skills and also nature connectedness, connectedness, you know, like people are connected, the noun is connectedness. So, yeah, outdoor activities now develop, tend to develop children's risk taking skills and nature, connectedness. So what does nature connectedness mean?
R: Like the state of being connected to nature. It's good for you. It's something honestly, I had to read papers on this at university because we were talking about why we should take children outside the classroom more often. And the idea was essentially that when you have this feeling of nature, connectedness, you're like, your heart rate slows down, your blood pressure lowers, you're more relaxed, like just lots of positive health outcomes are associated with nature connectedness. So get outside if you can and cuddle a tree.
M: Yes, do that now, dear listener, right now, go, go. It's okay, if it's minus 30. We don't care. Just go, go there. Go outside.
R: Apparently, if you touch a tree, it helps release certain hormones that help you manage your pain better as well.
M: Okay, intresting. One tree or many trees?
R: I have absolutely no idea. It was just something that was mentioned in the passing. And I was like, woo, that's interesting idea.
M: Okay, I have a forest close to my house. Maybe I'll go and touch trees.
R: Just don't let the neighbors see. Otherwise, they'll be thinking like, what is this person doing?
M: Oh, what did you mean by saying that coddling children and keeping them away from outdoors is not good for them. So coddling them.
R: That just means keeping them away from danger.
M: So coddling children and keeping them away from outdoors could be detrimental to their development. Detrimental is a very nice adjective, which means negative.
R: Yes, it's always detrimental to or for.
M: Another good one is in hindsight. We haven't seen that one in a while.
R: Yes, but that just means looking back. And to reinforce this idea of looking back I said should have been. Should have been. It's a modal structure with a perfect aspect. It's quality.
M: Should have been.
R: But now Maria is going to explain what that means, because I have no idea.
M: So, the sentence was like that.
R: Was like what?
M: So today, today, outdoor activities for children tend to develop risk taking skills and nature connectedness. in hindsight so in the past people were not aware of the fact that we do need to develop risk taking and nature connectedness. Though in hindsight, they should have been so people should have been aware of the fact that we should develop risk taking skills and nature connectedness but they were not aware. If for example, so Rory moved from Moscow to Scotland and he should have stayed in Moscow. Okay?
R: Because he's now extremely bored.
M: Yeah, he should have stayed right. But he didn't. He moved. But it was in the past. So the same here. Like people weren't aware of these risk-taking skills and nature connectedness in outdoor activities, but they should have been aware. Yeah, a nice one. And then we can talk about a range of activities available for older people. Like hill walking. And, I don't know, what, paragliding you mentioned. Yeah? Something like extreme.
M: Parasailing, sailing, diving. I don't know, frisbee throwing just without any purpose. Running around.
R: Anyway, thank you for joining us on this expedition through outdoor vocabulary and activities.
M: By the way, the five best outdoor activities in Russia number one is climbing Mount Elbrus.
M: Not Everest, but elbows. Diving, hiking, rafting, ice diving in Baikal Lake. So you just go to the Baikal Lake in winter, where it's like minus 30 and you go ice diving in freezing cold water.
R: I see. So really your criticism of Scottish people being quite reckless and foolhardy with their lives is a bit ill-founded when you look at what Russian people spend their time doing.
M: Yeah, yeah, we don't go hunting. We just go ice diving, we climb Mount Elbrus, you know,
R: You're all completely insane!
M: Alright, dear listener, so we have given you lots of examples. So feel free to use them, while speaking about outdoor activities. Bye!
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