This episode's vocabulary
- Cater to (phrasal verb) - to satisfy a need or to provide what is wanted or needed by a particular person or group.
- Well off (adj.) - rich.
- Fast fashion (noun) - clothes that are made and sold cheaply, so that people can buy new clothes often.
- Splash out (phrasal verb) - to spend a lot of money on buying things, especially things that are pleasant to have but that you do not need.
- Specialized (adj.) - relating to one particular area or designed for a particular purpose.
- Outlet (noun) - a shop that is one of many owned by a particular company and that sells the goods that the company has produced.
- Measurement criteria - measurement standards.
- Variety (noun) - the characteristic of often changing and being different.
- Corresponding (adj.) - similar to, connected with, or caused by something else.
- Gist (noun) - the most important pieces of information about something, or general information without details.
- Vivid (adj.) - very brightly coloured.
- Outfit (noun) - a set of clothes worn for a particular occasion or activity.
- To opt (verb) - to make a choice, especially of one thing or possibility instead of others.
- Disposition (noun) - the particular type of character that a person naturally has.
- Inevitable (adj.) - certain to happen and unable to be avoided or prevented.
- Garment (noun) - a piece of clothing.
- Livelier (adj.) - (of colours) bright and strong.
- Gown (noun) - a long, loose piece of clothing worn over other clothes for a particular purpose.
- Mortarboard (noun) - a black hat with a square, flat top, worn for formal occasions and ceremonies by some teachers and students at a college or university, and in the past by some schoolteachers.
Questions and Answers
M: Rory, where do people buy clothes in your country?
R: Oh God, I think there are places that cater to every taste. Um, most people aren't so well off, so they tend to go to fast fashion chains since they tend to be on the cheaper side of things. Some people like to splash out from time to time on specialized or fancy clothes and there're stores for that too.
M: Do you think it's a good idea to buy clothes online?
R: Well, if you know your measurements, and they haven't changed significantly, then it's a good idea. I think some outfits, sorry, some outlets are based in different countries with different units of measurement criteria. So it might be a better idea in that case, if you were to go to the place itself, because you know, you don't want to buy something that's the wrong size.
M: But do you think that more people will buy more things online in the future?
R: I think they will. And I think the system for getting the measurements will be more accurate too as that process develops.
M: What's the difference between wardrobe options for men and women?
R: Well, in a word, it's probably variety. Out of so many options open to them, like relative to men, you can wear trousers or dresses, and there are different kinds of dresses to go with that. And the color combinations and the accessories tend to be greater in variation too. Though, I suppose that comes with the corresponding complexity that seems to annoy many women.
M: When purchasing clothing, what do people consider?
R: I think the first thing that catches their eye is the style or the color. And then they kind of apply a mental checklist that includes how well it goes with their current style, the size, of course, and maybe the image it can project. There are wider factors, of course, like sort of religious or ethical beliefs. But I think the first three are what people really think about, at least in my country.
M: Do they think about the price, do you think?
R: If they're Scottish, they definitely think about the price as well. But that will dictate the shop they go to, rather than, than the clothes that they choose in that shop. Because the prices are generally in the same range, I suppose it's the best way to describe it.
M: Do you think what people wear can influence their mood?
R: Well, generally, if you look good, then you feel good. So that could be considered a basic level of influence. Though, I think there's been some research to suggest that color affects our psychology. I think the gist of it is that brighter colors trigger more vivid emotional responses, whereas duller colors encourage a more even emotional response.
M: What kind of clothes do people wear for work?
R: Most people go for smart casual these days, don't they? Though, that's rather broad description. I think it can be taken to mean like nothing you would wear on a night out at one extreme and not looking like you're preparing for a board meeting on the other end of the spectrum. It covers a lot though. And people float the rules all the time if they look good doing it.
M: Some companies have these casual Fridays. Do you think it's a good idea to allow employees to wear casual at work?
R: It will probably depend on the sector they work in. I mean, I suppose if you're a judge in a courthouse, then I don't know if a courthouse can be said to be a business. But then like, you can't imagine it that way. So some people have like fixed uniforms. Whereas if it's the same for if you're working as a barista, for example, I wouldn't really want to be served by a barista just wearing their like random casual clothes, I'd prefer an outfit. But if it's in an office and the public isn't looking at you, and you do your job, professionally, then why not?
M: What are the differences between clothes worn by old people and those by young people?
R: I think the major points of departure of the style, the color, and the age of the clothes probably. I mean everybody gets rather set in their ways as they get older so they look for or they'll favor for what is familiar. I think older people tend to opt for darker colors too is a reflection of their calmer disposition, generally speaking. And then lastly, there's the age. And I don't think it's a big secret that older people have older clothes. I mean, that's probably inevitable when garments are longer lasting these days.
M: Does personality affect what clothing people choose to wear?
R: Probably. You tend to find more lively people have livelier color palettes represented in their clothes. It's not an absolute though some extremely creative people only wear one month in this outfit, but intellectually they're quite brilliant. I would say it doesn't the main.
M: What clothes do university students wear for the graduation ceremonies?
R: I think gowns and mortarboards are the typical things that define graduate outfits on their big day, aren't they? Um, and if you come from a culture with its own dress, then you can include that too. I think there are also different colors of trimmings that are added to the gowns based on the qualification. But these are separate so they can be mixed and matched by the rental companies that you get these outfits from if you choose to rent it, which many people do.
M: Do you think people's clothing styles will change in the future and people will turn to more unusual clothes or a certain style in clothing?
R: Probably. I mean, like what we are wearing today is radically different from what people would wear a 100 years ago. I think the main thing is that it will need to cover your body, that part will not change, probably. How it will do that, on the other hand, might vary radically.
M: Thank you very much for your lovely answers!
R: Hopefully they covered everything.
M: Cover your body. Fewer clothes, no more body.
R: Notice how I said fewer and not less.
M: I know, I know. Yeah, dear listener. More people would say less clothes, to be honest.
R: I know. But they'd be wrong.
M: Less clothes more body. Yeah, but yeah, it's grammatically incorrect. So we have to say fewer clothes, like fewer people, fewer books. So, let's dive into the world of vocabulary. So, buying clothes, where do people buy clothes, and you go, there are places that cater to every taste. So shops, which cater to all people, to different people, which are suitable to different people. And people go to these shops, and they might want to splash out on fancy clothes.
R: Yes. Well, if you splash out it's not, well, it's just the way of spending money in one go, isn't it?
M: It's not just spending money, it's spending a lot of money.
R: Didn't I say that?
M: No. Well, you implied that. So yeah, you go and you spend a large amount of money. Okay? So, oh, I went shopping yesterday, and I splashed out on makeup. So I bought like loads of makeup, and I spent a lot of money on makeup, like, a lot. Can I splash out on a car?
R: You can, yeah, but if you don't spend a lot of things, you might want to buy clothes that are on the cheaper side of things. So instead of just saying they're cheap, which can potentially be quite offensive, and then you might say it's on the cheaper side. So instead of just saying flat out. There are different kinds of fashion, though. Fast fashion, which is stores that change their fashions quite regularly. I suppose it's the best way to talk about it.
M: Fast fashion?
R: Yeah, like for example, in the UK, I suppose the main examples would be things like "Primark" and "Top Shop". In Russia, isn't there not "Tvoe"?
M: Oh, no, come on. In Russia, we have our own fashion.
R: No, that's a fast-fashion store. Yeah, it is.
M: Wow, okay, interesting. I would say like "Zara" or "Mango".
R: Well, they're also fast fashion.
M: Okay. All right. When you talk about buying things online, you should talk about measurements. So if you know your measurements, so you're kind of size and different measurements. You can go and buy things online. Some outlets, outlets, you meant shops, yeah?
R: Yes. It's just another way of saying shops, places you buy things.
M: Yeah, you get clothes on online outlets. Online outlets? No.
R: I don't think you call them online outlets. Outlets are usually like specific places in the world.
M: Yeah, brick and mortar shops, actual shops.
R: Physical shops.
M: So there are different outlets. Physical, yeah, physical shops. Yeah. So you either buy goods online, okay, or on the internet. Okay, people? Buy clothes on the internet, not in the internet, on the internet. Or you go to some outlets, fashion outlets to get some nice Nike sneakers, for example. Right, when you talked about the differences between men and women, you said that the color combinations and accessories tends to be greater in variation. That was nice.
R: Yeah, like, for example, you have a range of earrings to choose from. Or if we want to talk about clothes, I mean, that's an accessory. But if we talk about clothes specifically, then you can choose to match different shoes with the outfits that you're wearing, if we can count shoes as clothes. Also, they're things like belts, some people say it's an accessory, some people consider it a piece of clothing. That's got to match too.
R: Um, and all of that makes it very complex. So it's like saying the more complex something is, it's got a corresponding level of variation. Because there's just too many choices. It just means like, it just means the variation goes with it.
M: Yeah, so we can talk about variety, right? Also, accessories tend to be great in variation. And we can talk about, for example, colors vary. So it's kind of the same word variety, to vary, and variations. When we purchase clothes purchase is another synonym to buy, when we buy clothes, we might apply a mental checklist. That's a nice one, I like it. Apply a mental checklist.
R: But that's just a list of things in your head that you look for. So we talked, you talked about the price, I mean, that will determine the store that you go to, but when we talk about the clothes in a store, they're generally in the same price range. So you go there and you're like, okay, what color do I like? Or colors? And then you move from there. Size becomes an increasingly important consideration. I think the closer to the norm that you are because of course, all the medium size things tend to fly off the shelves.
M: Yeah. And sometimes people buy smaller things than they should. And then they just like, give them back. Yeah, okay. It's okay. An "S" on me would look good. It's okay, I can do it. I can stop eating for a week, and then I will be able to fit in. Oh, no, no, no.
R: That's not healthy at all.
M: In terms of colors, we can say brighter colors trigger more vivid emotional responses. Oh my god, this is so nerdy and geeky. Yeah, talking about colors, yeah. So like...
R: But that's just a fact, isn't it? I mean, you know, you know this better than I do. Because you studied psychology.
M: Yeah, if you feel blue, you just put on a yellow jacket. Yes, yellow jacket and you kind of start feeling bubbly. Hey, yellow, you're full of yellow all of a sudden. So yeah, brighter colors do trigger more vivid emotional responses. People's moods can go up. And you might feel happier wearing bright colors, rather than the gray or dull or dark colors. I like how you used the word whereas, very nice. So like brighter colors trigger more vivid emotional responses, whereas duller colors, encourage more even emotional responses. So whereas or while it means the same as but.
M: Yeah, we contrast ideas in an effective way. Yeah. That's why Rory wears black, pretty much. Yeah, Rory? To trigger, what, the dark sides of your soul?
R: No, I just wear it because I don't have a great imagination.
M: But actually now we're recording and he's wearing white. Yeah, dear listener, can you believe that Rory is wearing a white shirt?
R: That's because, that's because I paid a lot of money for this shirt, thinking it was gonna look good. And it doesn't but I've paid money for it, so I'm going to wear it.
M: No, it does. It does. It doesn't look good on you. Yeah, it's like white Gandalf now. In Moscow, it was gray Gandalf.
R: It's not, it's not the best look.
M: Black again. But now it's white Roro Gandalf. Yeah, cool. So when we talk about what people wear for work, we can say that people go for smart casual. So first of all people choose, they go for smart-casual style. It's not like smart style. It's not smart casual or like they say street casual for casual. So, and smart casual for work. Roro, you also said opt for. Some people opt for darker colors. Oped for.
R: Yes, that's just another way of saying choose.
M: Yeah, make sure you use synonyms. People go for smart casual. People opt for smart casual. That's a good word for your essay by the way. A good synonym for choose, select, go for, opt for. Everyone gets rather set in their ways as they get older. Hmm.
R: Yeah. But if you get set in your ways, that just means that you don't change after a certain point. Too much effort.
M: You kind of get used to things so you get set in your ways. Oh, Roro, do you know what? You know what I want to do? I want to throw away all my clothes that I own now, and I want to buy new things, like totally, like brand new things, everything. What do you think of this idea?
R: I think that that's gonna be a lot of work. You have like a lot of clothes.
M: I have lots of dresses. But it's nice, not to be set in your ways. But to, you know, freshen up a little bit. No, no dear listener, just it's not some action points for you, that you have to throw away everything you own, and then get new things. No. Anyway, calmer dispositions, so old people tend to have calmer dispositions.
R: Yes. Disposition is just like how your emotions are. So you can have a calm disposition. An angry disposition.
M: Rory, what disposition do you have?
R: I'm trying to have a calmer disposition. It's not going well.
M: He's a rebel. He's a wild Scot.
R: I'm not a rebel. I don't want to be.
M: Yeah, you don't want to be but you just are. Maybe you just are, you know, deep inside. Okay. When we talk about graduation ceremonies, we should talk about gowns and mortarboards. So if I were you, I would just google gowns and mortarboards.
R: Yeah, that's the name of the hats that people wear.
M: Yeah, mortarboards, it's a crazy word. Like what, mortarboard? Jesus.
R: Yeah, I think... I think it's from the word that carpenters builders, I suppose, used to put their cement on when they're building something. And somehow that is what the heart looks like. Even though that's not the purpose of the heart. I don't really know what the purpose of the heart is, to be honest with you. It must be some sort of old tradition.
M: Yes, so dear listener, if you have such a question about graduation ceremonies, and clothes, gowns and motorboats are the things which are typical. Okay? For graduate outfits, clothes, outfits, and also garments. Yeah, Rory, you've used the word garment. But a garment is more formal word. We don't normally use the word garment, right?
R: Um, yes.
M: That's the answer. Full stop. Yes. That's all. Yep.
R: That's all. That's it. Yeah. I can't think of another, I can't think of anything to add to that. It's like clothes are formal, or informal, or neutral, garment is the formal term.
M: Yep. Yeah. So garments, outfits. Right. And my, something else...
R: I suppose garment is something that can be used as clothing.
M: Clothing. Yeah, people's clothing. People's garments.
R: It's a much broader term. But it's not, it's not something that's decisive. Right, okay.
M: Now, you're all dressed up.
R: I think we've, I think we've dressed up enough vocabulary. So, with that in mind, thank you for listening! Join us again next time. Bye!
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