This episode's vocabulary
- Extracurricular activity (noun) - an extracurricular activity or subject is not part of the usual school or college course.
- To collaborate (verb) - to work with someone else for a special purpose.
- Hyper- (prefix) - having too much of a quality.
- Isolated (adj.) - not near other things or people.
- Nuance (noun) - a quality of something that is not easy to notice but may be important.
- In-depth (adj.) - done carefully and in great detail.
- Accessible (adj.) - able to be reached or easily got.
- Complexity (noun) - the state of having many parts and being difficult to understand or find an answer to.
- To consume (verb) - to use fuel, energy, or time, especially in large amounts.
- Cognitively demanding (adj.) - demanding you thinking.
- Profound (adj.) - felt or experienced very strongly or in an extreme way.
Questions and Answers
M: What's the most popular outdoor activity in your country?
R: I'm not actually very sure, to be honest. I suppose it would be something involving the legs. So running, walking, hiking, etc. There's so many places to go in Scotland that you don't have to travel far to, so my money would be on one of those options.
M: What activities do young people usually do after school or work in your country?
R: Well, I imagine there are lots of extracurricular activities that you could do. Apparently, we have quite the gymnastics community. And most of the boys, or at least most of the boys that I taught, like either football or rugby. So there are a lot of clubs for that. I imagine many of them also play video games and use social media after school as well.
M: What do young people usually do in groups?
R: Well, anything social, really. They have discussions, share ideas about what they're doing, and maybe who they're listening to, if they're talking about music, or even podcasts, I suppose. Online, they probably do much the same. Or they collaborate on various video games and social media projects. To be honest, it might be easier to say what they do alone quite frankly.
M: And do you think young people prefer doing something alone or in groups? Like more people enjoy doing what?
R: Oh, I read somewhere that young people are, well, not young people, teenagers, in particular, are hyper-social. So they probably prefer doing things in groups, I imagine there are some isolated individuals out there who either can't or choose not to. But for the most part, teenagers, and younger people will prefer to do things in groups.
M: Is it the same with adults?
R: I think there's a lot more nuance there. I think they will prefer to do certain things in groups. And they will prefer to do other things alone. But in the case of teenagers, they probably prefer to do most things in groups.
M: Do you think that the activities people do after school work are different now than in the past?
R: Well, the underlying concept will probably be the same. So if we talk about social activities, then clearly the idea is to do things together. So they're probably still doing things together. But how it's manifested is probably different. Because of, well, if we think about the current situation with the pandemic, a lot of people are doing social things online, for example. But even the fact that we actually have technology means that they're doing social things, using or through or with the aid of technology in some way, shape, or form.
M: And what about the future? What kind of activities would be popular for people to do after work or school?
R: Well, like I say, the concept will probably be the same. People will still want to do things together or in groups. But what those activities will be I can't possibly say. That would require me to have an in-depth knowledge of what's coming out of the tech industry, which I don't have.
M: And could you just give me some examples of such activities?
R: That I don't know about? They're going to happen in the future.
M: No, like people usually do now, for example, these days.
R: Well, you wanted to talk about the future. So which one is it?
M: No, the present, the present.
R: Okay. So some more examples of things that people do at present?
M: After work or school.
R: Okay. They play video games together. They like have games, like Among us, for example, or I think you can play Minecraft together. And if you can, and there are various competitions for building things that people get stuck into.
M: Do you think people prefer movies over books?
R: Well, I suppose so since movies are generally more accessible than books in terms of time and content. By that I mean, you can consume them in a shorter space of time. And a visual image with spoken words is easier to understand. And now we can even change the language settings on most films. So that makes it easier to share ideas across cultures and countries than with literature because you have to go through the trouble of translating everything and that takes time and not every book is translated and it's just the accessibility is not really that great for literature.
M: How do you think books can help people over movies?
R: I'm not sure. I suppose the complexity of the ideas in books can be greater, since they can be consumed over a longer period of time. But that also makes them more cognitively demanding. And you have to really try to understand them. Despite that, I think people are more likely to turn to a book for advice. Like in comparison to a movie, unless it was like a documentary or something extremely profound. It's much easier to take a book seriously compared to a film.
M: Rory, thank you for your answers!
M: So, activities. We can have outdoor activities or indoor activities, the question was, what's the most popular outdoor activity in your country? You said something that involves the legs. So walking, running, hiking. Why hiking?
R: You need your legs to go off a mountain.
M: Yeah, I've just googled top outdoor activities in Scotland. And they are bungee jumping. You know, when you are tied to a rope and you just fly, you jump from a mountain. Paragliding, motor racing, mountain biking, snowboarding. Oh, do you have snow in Scotland? Really?
R: We're about to get a lot of snow now. Well, actually, I suppose. By the time this episode goes out the storm, we have storm, we had Storm Arwen. And now we're having Storm Berra. So apparently, that's going to cover us in snow. So by the time people are listening to this, I'll be fine, and the snow will not be here or I'll be buried under a mountain of snow. We'll see.
M: Yeah, now Moscow is just it's like one huge snowdrift. It started snowing at night. And now it's just a disaster because like, oh my god, it's snow. What are we doing? What do we do? So yeah, it's like this. It's kind of the first time ever in our life. So, you see, dear listener, outdoor activities could be like this, like paragliding, motor racing, mountain biking. So these kinds of activities, then you should know what young people usually do in your country. So Rory is a huge expert on what young people do in his country.
M: You said lots of extracurricular activities. What are they?
R: So extracurricular activities are just activities that you do outside of school or as part of school, but after the main learning is done, or the main teaching as well.
M: So these activities involve gymnastics. You said, for example.
R: Yeah, apparently, lots of girls especially go to gymnastics.
M: It could be like dancing or crafts. Some activities for children. What else? Like cooking classes, English classes, or sport?
R: I think most kids do something connected to sports or exercise.
M: So if you have no idea, just say sport. Oh, football, rugby are popular. And then surely you should say video games, right? Because I think video games is number one, all over the globe, in the states in Europe, surely in Scotland. So people play video games, young people and also adults.
R: We've talked for video games before. We've done an episode about video games, haven't we?
R: So if you want to know more vocabulary for video games go there.
M: Yeah, so this is a nice activity. So you can talk about outdoor activities like hiking and motor paragliding, diving and indoor activities, playing video games, cooking, reading, playing board games, for example, with your friends. And then we talked about certain activities, which are done in groups, and we can call them social activities. So what are social activities? If I get together with my friends, and we go to a cafe, is it a social activity?
R: Well, it's a social occasion. I think a social activity is like things that people get together for that have a purpose that's shared and meaningful. So for example, going like, well, if you're in a football team, then you go and play football with your friends. That's a social activity.
M: Hmm. If I organize a debate club or a reading club, and everybody comes in and we discuss books, so that's social activity?
R: Also social activity, yes.
M: Okay. So again, different games, video games, football, social media projects. You can talk about that. You said that some teenagers are hyper-social.
R: Almost all teenagers are hyper-social. If they're not, then there's probably something wrong. Like really.
M: Hyper social, they want to communicate with each other.
R: Well, it's not just about communicating, it's about being around people, because you don't just communicate through words, you communicate through body language through being present, gesture, facial expression, all of this. And it works best, at least in the case of teenagers, when you can do it together in a group. However, they might not be able to do that. So they resort to online social media at this kind of thing. But the key concepts are basically the same. But if you're hyper-social, it means that you're doing, you're socializing with a huge number of people and establishing a vast array of social connections.
M: Yeah, we can talk about movie clubs, for example. Like kids or teenagers, young adults get together to watch a movie. I don't know, if they do this. I was actually quite surprised when I found out that some teens enjoy karaoke. So they would go to a karaoke bar and, you know, like cool kids, like rich kids, right? And they would sing karaoke. Wow.
R: Well, then again, Are they enjoying the karaoke? Or are they enjoying the attention and interaction that emerges from it?
M: Yeah, yeah, I think both. But just an activity itself. Like teenagers these days, they just enjoy karaoke. And also at home. They buy all this gear and microphones, some equipment or software, and they just sing karaoke online, together. Wow. Interesting. Then you can say that, okay, social activities bla, bla, bla and then the pandemic. Because of the pandemic. So we call it that pandemic, right? People socialize, or they engage in different social activities with the aid of technology.
R: Yes. So with the aid of, well, anything. This phrase just means using or with the help of, and then whatever the thing is, so with the aid of technology just means using technology to help you do something.
M: Then there was some questions about movies or books, which are a bit strange. Well, because I don't know the topic is a bit different. But because this is a new topic, and now it's been used, so we don't really know the exact questions, but these questions have been reported as they're used in the exam. And then you said, movies, films are generally more accessible than books.
R: Yeah, but accessible just means, well, if something is accessible, it just means you can have access to it. Like you can use it, it's there for you. And if something is inaccessible, then it's not. And then we talk about accessibility, which is the concept of being able to use something or not.
M: So it's kind of it's easier to watch a movie than read a book, in terms of, I don't know, your effort, your energy, yeah?
R: Yeah. Well, I would also think in terms of... No, no, the effort is the best way of describing it.
M: A visual image with spoken words is easier to understand than reading a book.
R: That's just another way of saying something that you can see and hear, though.
M: Yeah, yeah, yeah.
R: I'm just making things overly complicated.
M: And everybody has Netflix. So you know, who wants books these days? Come on.
R: Me. I wish I had more time to read. That is all I want from my life right now.
M: Oh, sweet. Well, you're studying, so you're supposed to read?
R: No, not the stuff I want. Not the stuff I'm reading right now.
M: Ah, yes, dear listener, our Rory is an educated native speaker. He reads a lot. You're supposed to read quite a lot.
R: I am. But I don't want to read any more articles about health and well being. I want to read books about spaceships.
M: Oh. It'll soon be over.
R: Yeah, in six months.
M: Cognitively demanding. So reading articles on welfare is cognitively demanding.
R: Yes, that's what reading the articles is. It's cognitively demanding.
R: I do not like the cognitive demands. But that just means it makes you think a lot. Really.
M: Yeah. So it could be positive or negative. Right? So you have to think, whereas when you watch a movie, you just watch it. You don't think about it much.
R: Well, you're thinking about it, but you're not putting in that much effort.
M: It's easy to take a book seriously.
R: It is easier to take a book seriously. So if you take something seriously then it just means that you think it's important.
M: It's easier to take a book seriously. No, I don't get that.
R: You don't understand the idea or you don't feel that?
M: Yeah. No, I don't understand the idea. It's easier to take a book.
R: It's easier to take a book seriously compared to a movie. Yeah, if you take something seriously, then you think it's a serious thing, and you think it's worth thinking about. Or you think it's worth taking into consideration.
M: Yeah, especially if the book is very profound.
R: Yes. But profound just means something that makes you think.
M: Cognitively demanding. Now it is your word or a phrase. So whatever you have, which makes you think you say, hmm, that's cognitively demanding. Like it demands your attention, it demands your thinking.
R: Oh, you might want to say profound better. Although no, we should think about what's the difference between cognitively demanding and profound is. Profound just means it communicates a really basic and clear message that has the potential to make people stop and reconsider things. Whereas cognitively demanding means it's more about the process of thinking about something. Something can be profound and simple, or it can be profound and cognitively demanding. It's more likely to be profound and simple, though.
M: But I can say, okay, this film is cognitively demanding. This film is profound. So films, books, can I say it about people? Oh, Rory is cognitively demanding.
R: Conversations with me might be.
M: Yeah, conversations could be cognitively demanding or listening to classical music, for example. But can people be profound?
R: It's usually the things people say that are profound.
M: Hmm, yeah. So whatever Rory says is quite profound.
R: Hopefully, we've given you some profound vocabulary and grammar to think about.
M: Thank you very much for listening! And we'll see you in the next episodes!
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