Premium Transcripts
Part 3

Traveling and transportation

This episode's vocabulary

  • Fumes (plural noun) - strong, unpleasant, and sometimes dangerous gas or smoke.
  • Emission (noun) - the act of sending out gas, heat, light, etc.
  • Vastly (adverb) - very much.
  • Mode (noun) - a way of operating, living, or behaving.
  • To traverse (verb) - to move or travel through an area.
  • Overhaul (noun) - the act of repairing an engine, machine, etc. so that every part works as it should.
  • Commonplace (adj.) - happening often or often seen or experienced and so not considered to be special.
  • Conscious (adj.) - awake, thinking, and knowing what is happening around you.
  • Climate-conscious (adj.) - conscious about climate.
  • Mainland (noun) - the main part of a country or continent, not including the islands around it.
  • Dreadful (adj.) - causing fear, shock, or suffering.
  • Godsend (noun) - something good that happens unexpectedly, especially at a time when it is needed.
  • Thrilled (adj.) - extremely happy about something.
  • Bypass (noun) - a road built around a town or village so that traffic does not need to travel through it.
  • Degradation (noun) - the process in which the beauty or quality of something is destroyed or spoiled.
  • Mass transport (noun) - a system of vehicles such as buses and trains that operate at regular times on fixed routes and are used by the public.
  • To counteract (verb) - to reduce or remove the effect of something unwanted by producing an opposite effect.


Questions and Answers

M: Rory, Rory, are you ready, ready?

R: I'm ready, ready.

M: Roro, do you think air pollution comes mostly from cars?

R: Well, that will likely depend entirely on what kind of air pollution we're talking about. My understanding is the air fumes from vehicles are different from the emissions produced by mining and industry, which are vastly more polluting by comparison, at least I think so.

M: Do people need to change their way of transportation to protect the environment?

R: It's a good question, to be honest. The easy answer is to say yes it will. However, I think environmental protection is more complex than that. If we changed our modes of transport, but not how we generated power or how we lived, then I think it would be irrelevant in terms of the overall change made, wouldn't it?

M: Which mode of transport is more popular in your country, a bicycle or a car?

R: Definitely cars without a shadow of a doubt. There are great distances between towns and cities that are almost impossible to traverse by bike for the vast majority of people. And given the weather at certain times of year, it might even be dangerous to try for those who can make the journey.

M: How do most people travel long distances in your country?

R: Well, like I said, mostly by car, though train is also an option if you can afford it. Actually, these days we're in a strange position where air travel is cheaper than rail travel. It was like that even before the pandemic due to the efficiency and other considerations when it comes to air travel.

M: Do you think it's going to be the same in the future?

R: Well, in the near future yes. I can't think of anything that would cause any changes. But if we talk about it in the long term, then I think there will be major overhauls made to the rail system, especially given how inefficient it is now.

M: Have the types of transport people use changed much over the last few decades?

R: Well, aside from air travel becoming commonplace, perhaps there are more cars on the road and more bikes since the population has grown. And people are becoming more climate-conscious. I'm not sure about sea travel, though. It always seems to be in a low priority unless you live off the mainland. But that isn't most people in my country.

M: What about E-Scooters? Are they popular in your country?

R: They are and they're dreadful.

M: Why?

R: Because they're really unsafe, they're unsafe for the people riding them. You don't have the training, and they're difficult to maintain, and then the risk of accident is much higher. People think they're some sort of godsend, but in fact, they actually cause more problems or have caused more problems than they were probably designed to fix to be honest with you.

M: Do you think they are here to stay, these E-Scooters?

R: I hope not. But it seems like people are quite taken with them. And I'm not particularly thrilled at that prospect. And neither are many other older people.

M: What kinds of improvements have there been in transports in your country in recent years?

R: I suppose that probably depends on what you mean by improvement. The government added a lot of bypasses to reduce travel times by car. And I think that train lines are more efficient, because they upgraded the technology, but I'm hardly an expert in these things. And even with the upgrades, the trains still don't run efficient.

M: How do you think people will travel in the future?

R: Well, it's sort of like I said earlier. In the short term, I doubt much will change beyond slight reductions and increases in the areas that I mentioned. In the long term. If things continue developing as they are, then we could see fantastic changes like orbital elevators, and skyhooks, and hyperloops. Of course, transport will still be air and ground-based, but in radically different forms from what it's like now.

M: Do you think that more people will prefer private vehicles in the future rather than public transport?

R: Well, I think people will always prefer a private option if they have a choice, but I don't think they're going to have that choice in the future.

M: Why? Why not?

R: Well, it seems like the use of private transport has contributed a great deal to environmental degradation. And so it makes more sense to use methods of mass transport to, well, to counteract this.

M: And which method of mass transport would be the most popular one?

R: Well, if we talk about my country, probably the train or, well, between cities, it would be the train, in cities, it would be buses.

M: Thank you very much for your lovely answers!



M: Yeah, it's a new topic, that's why we don't have many questions, to be honest with you, dear listener. But these are the questions that we found. So here they are.

R: We're gonna have to deal with it.

M: Yeah. Yeah. So traveling, transportation, they can ask you again, various questions about pollution, environment, transport in the future, transport improvements in your country, how people travel in your country. Anything else that we haven't discussed what the examiner can ask you?

R: What improvements could be made? What are the advantages and disadvantages of traveling in your country?

M: Yeah, advantages, and disadvantages of like, traveling by plane, or traveling by car? And perhaps the past? What was in the past, and what will be in the future? So typical questions.

R: How has transport changed in your country? We no longer use horses.

M: People used to travel by donkeys, not anymore. Yes. And here, guys, to be in the know, you should talk about electric scooters, or we call them E-Scooters. Because in Moscow, they're everywhere. In Scotland, are they everywhere now?

R: They're not as everywhere. They're not as everywhere as they are in Moscow if that makes sense. Sorry, they're not as pervasive, which is a great word to use, because they're pests. And pests are pervasive. Oh, it was funny, though, actually. Someone wrote an article about how E-Scooters were awful in Moscow and how they hoped it wouldn't happen in England. And their local MP suggested that if they have a problem with E-Scooters, they should talk to the local police. And it's like, have you tried talking to the local police in Moscow? I don't think they would care.

M: Yeah, yeah. So now in Moscow, they're everywhere, E-Scooters. And in St.Petersburg, I think they were banned because they had horrid accidents. And I think the mayor just said no, not anymore. Yeah, dear listen, if you are from St. Petersburg, please let us know on our social media, what's going on in St. Petersburg with E-Scooters situation. So yes, now it's the trend and you can actually talk about E-Scooters at the moment in different cities, in your city. Anyway, traveling and transportation. Rory has used loads and loads of topic-related vocabulary about transport. Okay? loads of synonyms. So for example, you said vehicles, right? Meaning like cars, buses, different vehicles.

R: Modes of transport.

M: Modes of transport. Kinds of transport or modes of transport. Can I say means of transport?

R: Oh, I suppose you could.

M: Yeah. So if we changed our modes of transport, we would blah blah, blah. The second conditional. If a question is, like, if the question is like, is the bicycle or a car? So which mode of transport is going to be more popular? Or is more popular now? You go like, definitely cars, or definitely buses. So that's a good answer. And then you explain why, yeah? You said it's almost impossible to traverse. Yeah?

R: Traverse.

M: Traverse.

R: You traverse a distance.

M: Like travel but traverse.

R: You can also travel a distance but traverse is a band nine word.

M: Yes. It's pretty formal, though. But yeah.

R: Oh, for God's sake. Of course it is. It's a band nine word. They're all formal.

M: Traverse. Oh. Yeah. So um, people in my country don't usually use bicycles because it's impossible to traverse certain areas by bike. Yeah?

R: Well, it's impossible to traverse certain distances. I don't think certain areas. You can go anywhere you like in Scotland, but you cannot travel like, what, a 100, a 150 kilometers by bike, like that's, that's insane.

M: Oh, I've done 100 kilometers on one day once. It was just...

R: Yes, but you were doing that not in order to commute to work and back again.

M: No, I was traveling by bicycle. So we had to go to a city, to Athens. It was in Greece. So it was just...quite hard. But I made it. Also you can say you make a journey. So people who make the journey.

R: Yeah. You don't do a journey, you make a journey. But you take a trip. But you can also make a trip.

M: Take a trip, make a trip.

R: Both.

M: But you can't do a trip.

R: Well, you can do a trip but doing a trip involves like organizing. It's like your job.

M: Oh, yeah, that's true.

R: This make, do and take thing is a lot more complicated than it seems. For example, you make breakfast in the kitchen, but you might take breakfast in your dining room if you have a dining room.

M: Yes. So you can say the vast majority of people in my country prefer to travel by car. Then you go with your answer about traveling long distances, and you paraphrase, like you said, first people traveled by train, but then you said air travel is cheaper than rail. Rail meaning traveling by train.

R: Yes. Rail travel.

M: Yeah. So air travel, traveling by plane is cheaper than rail, traveling by train. So, dear listener, avoid saying traveling by plane train. So just air travel, rail. Yeah, nice synonyms and also see travel. See travel is not that popular.

R: Unless you don't live on the mainland.

M: Yeah.

R: The mainland is just like the main part of a country as opposed to the islands.

M: Air travel has become commonplace, which means like popular, common.

R: Well, common in many places.

M: And when you talked about how transportation has changed, you said that people are becoming more climate-conscious. So it's a process, people are becoming more climate aware, more climate-conscious. That's why they choose public transport. They care about the fumes. So the fumes from vehicles, fumes, like gases emitted from your car. A very good strategy is when the examiner asks your question, and then you go like, that probably depends on what you mean by and then you say, some strange words, right?

R: Improvement.

M: And then you give explanation. Yeah, like what kinds of improvements have there been in transport? And then oh, that probably depends on what you mean by improvement? If you mean this, then that. Here, you've used a lot of precise words like the government has added a lot of bypasses.

R: Yeah, I don't actually know if it was the government that was responsible for that, but it seems like it was.

M: So a bypass, what is a bypass?

R: A bypass is something that goes around a certain area. So for example, we have a bypass near our town. If we didn't have it, you would have to go through three or four different towns to get to where you need to be. And that adds more journey time, but the bypass goes directly past these places directly to where you need to go. So it takes time off actually.

M: So usually bypasses our roads. So highways.

R: Yes.

M: Then train lines have been added. So like more train stations, train lines.

R: Well, not train stations, train lines are like the tracks, the paths.

M: Yeah, train lines. Also, if for example, you have bicycle lanes, so it's interesting, like train lines, but bicycle lanes. So special paths for cyclists, for bicycle, right. So bicycle lanes have been added or train lines are more efficient now.

R: Allegedly.

M: Yeah. Also, you can say the government has upgraded the technology, right? The transport infrastructure, the technology. For example, on the metro, we have now TV screens, they are showing different things.

R: You have Wi-Fi, thank God for the metro Wi-Fi.

M: We have Wi-Fi with different like, TV screens. So yeah, good times. And also on, for example, suburban trains we have TV screens and they're nice, they're clean. Well, not all of them, but perhaps most of them. Right. And then about the future. You said orbital elevators, so it's kind of a lift, which goes to another planet?

R: No, it's a lift that goes into orbit.

M: Orbit.

R: Yes.

M: Skyhooks? What did you mean by skyhooks?

R: it's also just an orbital elevator.

M: Hyper, hyper loops.

R: A hyperloop is, well, it's the kind of thing that Elon Musk is proposing to build in America. It's meant to make transport faster, especially for ground transport. Well, only for ground transport, in this case. The way that a space elevator or a Skyhook works is... Right, the Earth rotates at like, something like 30,000 miles per hour or something like that. So, because of this, if you lifted something directly up while the earth was rotating, then obviously, you could just drop it back down again, in a new place. And that would be much faster than taking a plane. Because a plane can't travel at 35,000 miles an hour for example.

M: Oh, wow. Yeah, dear listener, so sounds really cool, when you say something like, yeah, in the future. We could see fantastic changes like orbital elevators, Skyhooks and Hyperloops. Just you know, matter of factly you just say yeah, you know, orbital elevators, Skyhooks, Hyperloops, you know, these kind of things. Cool. Yeah, the transport will still be air and ground-based, but in radically different forms.

R: Radically different.

M: Radically, absolutely different. So don't forget to mention E-Scooters.

R: And tell them how much you hate them.

M: So maybe cars will go obsolete. Everybody will just ride an E-Scooter. And they will control their E-scooter from the brain. Just you'll have a connection, mind connection, wireless connection with your E-Scooter. Also you can talk about driverless cars. We call them driverless cars. Yeah, cars without a driver. Yep. So you can talk about driverless cars. There you go, dear listener. Now you're ready to talk about traveling and transportation. Again, this is a new topic. And yeah...

R: Hopefully we have transported you to a place with lots of vocabulary. Yeah. It's a pun.

M: A planet of vocabulary, vocabulary planet. Thank you very much for listening! Thank you for being our premium subscriber! We love you and hug you from two places in the world, from Scotland and from Russia! Bye!

R: Bye!


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